Footnotes is an FPRI bulletin intended for educators. It seeks to “teach the teachers” drawing both upon the work of FPRI research staff and scholars as well as lectures, papers, and talks presented at FPRI forums and special events.

Religion and Secularism in the Middle East: A Primer

November 25, 2015 · Aaron Rock-Singer

The flag of Egypt, 1922-1953 Abstract: Religion was a pillar of pre-modern political identity in the Middle East, arising out of Muslims’ understanding of Islam’s foundational moment and state institutions that developed with the ...

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Religious Minorities in the Modern Middle East

November 20, 2015 · Lev Weitz

The majority of the Middle East’s population today is Muslim, as it has been for centuries. However, as the place of origin of a range of world religions – including Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and ...

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Identity in the Pre-Modern Middle East

October 28, 2015

We live in an age of identity politics.  We define ourselves by one or more objective measures: measures of race, ethnicity, gender, politics, religion, sexual orientation, to name just a few. Those measures then ...

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Post-Colonial States and the Struggle for Identity in the Middle East since World War Two

October 23, 2015

The term “post-colonial” has presented a seminal problem for historians of the 20th century Middle East. As this essay will detail, debates over the term have provided an important axis around which discussions of ...

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Islam and Islamism: A Primer for Teachers and Students

August 25, 2015

Defining – and distinguishing between – the terms Islam and Islamism has broad consequences for America, both domestically and internationally. However, teaching about the relationship between these two concepts involves negotiating numerous sensitivities and ...

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Civil Liberties vs. State Security in Historical Perspective

May 21, 2015 · Louis Fisher

These remarks were delivered at a history institute for high school teachers on Ethical Dilemmas in American Warfare,” April 18-19, 2015, sponsored jointly by the Foreign Policy Research Institute’s Butcher History Institute and the ...

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The Dilemmas of Captivity

May 7, 2015 · Paul J. Springer

This essay is based on a presentation to a history institute  for teachers on “Ethical Dilemmas in American Warfare,” April 2015, sponsored by the Foreign Policy Research Institute’s Butcher History Institute, the First Division ...

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Thinking about Military History in an Age of Drones, Hackers, and IEDs

April 28, 2015 · Paul J. Springer

We live in a transitional period in the history of human conflicts. Military robotics and cyber capabilities constitute a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) that will permanently alter the nature of warfare. The United ...

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Internet Connectedness: Unequaled Incubator for Innovation or the Death of Privacy and Civility?

February 9, 2015 · Lawrence Husick

On February 3, 2015, the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia, Drexel University, and The Franklin Institute presented a symposium, entitled, rather hyperbolically, 21st Century Technology: New Beginning, or Terrible End. The sessions addressed issues ...

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The Role of Military History in the Contemporary Academy

February 7, 2015 · Tami Davis Biddle, Robert M. Citino

The resort to war signals the failure of far more satisfactory means of settling human conflicts. It forces us to face and wrestle with the darkest corners of the human psyche.  It signals the ...

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